Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Management Elements of Waterview Connection. Answer: Introduction This report entails analyzing various risk management elements of Waterview Connection project. The specific elements discussed are: project context, risk identification, risk analysis and evaluation, and risk treatment. Project Context The Waterview Connection is among the biggest and most significant infrastructure projects ever to be implemented in New Zealand. It is Aucklands most crucial transport project for almost six decades. The project involves construction of a motorway ring route that will go round the city of Auckland. On completion, this motorway route will be the main connection between the Northwestern and Southwestern motorways (Waka Kotahi, 2011). With this project in place, the famous Western Ring Route of Auckland will not be complete. This ambitious project is expected to unlock the potential of Auckland of becoming one of the top-class cities in the world. It will provide the city with a robust and steadfast motorway network that will ease movement of people, vehicles and goods in, out and around Auckland (Learnz, (n.d.)). The project comprises of several features. Two of the main features are the Waterview tunnels and the Great North Road Interchange. The former consists of two 2.4km-long tunnels, each with three traffic lanes. The latter consists of 4 ramps totaling 1.7km in length, which will connect Northwestern and Southwestern motorways (Fletcher Construction Company Limited, 2016). The developer of this project is Well-Connected Alliance (WCA), which comprises of NZ Transport Agency (NZTA), Tonkin Taylor, McConnell Dowell Constructors, Fletcher Construction, Obayashi Corporation, Beca Infrastructure and Parsons Brinkerhoff. Other sub-alliance partners include SICE NZ Ltd and Wilson Tunnelling. The decision to use an alliance was attributed to the complexity of the project. Such mega projects usually have complex issues in relation to their design works, construction works, environmental impacts and lifecycle concerns. Other stakeholders of the project are contractors and suppliers based in New Zealand and other parts of the world. The enabling works of the project started in January 2012 while proper construction started in June 2012. The project is scheduled for completion and opening in early 2017 (Nicole Lawton, 2016). After being completed, the Well-Connected Alliance will be responsible for maintenance and management of the route for 10 years. This mega project is estimated to cost NZ$1.4 billion (Beca, 2014). It is also estimated to have created job opportunities for about 1000 people so far. Therefore it is a mega project with significant economic impacts to people and the country as a whole. Quality is one of the top priorities of Waterview Connection project. This is definitely a complex project and that it why it is being delivered using an alliance approach. The alliance is capable of dealing with multiple design and construction challenges associated with such projects. As stated before the Waterview Connection project comprises of two parallel tunnels, each 2.4 long, 40m below the ground surface and 11m apart, and interchanges that will connect it to the Southwestern Motorway and Northwestern Motorway at Mt Roskill and Great North Road respectively. The total length of the project motorway will be approximately 5 km. The project also comprises of various landscape and urban design initiatives, including upgraded parks, playgrounds, recreational facilities, sports amenities and enhanced walking and cycling connections (NZ Transport Agency, 2016). These initiatives will open up numerous opportunities for local communities (people and businesses). Despite all these ambitious expectations on the positive impacts of the Waterview Connection projects, its associated negative impacts cannot be overlooked. Just like any other project, there must be both positive and negative impacts. The design and construction of the project is complex and possibly so is its management. The most important thing is to analyze the risks related to the design, construction and management of the project and identify their appropriate mitigation strategies. By understanding potential risks of the project, it becomes easier to identify ways of eliminating or preventing them, or reducing their effects. This project is costing the New Zealand government billions of dollars and therefore failure to manage its associated risks appropriately will have adverse effects on the entire country. Risk Identification There are several risks associated with Waterview Connection project. This project is more vulnerable to risks than ordinary construction projects because it has multiple unique features, including complex processes, long duration, vigorous organizational structures, financial intensity, and fluctuating environmental conditions. These risks have direct impacts on the feasibility of the project. Inasmuch as the project has been extensively planned by Well-Connected Alliance, some of these risks are inevitable. This puts the remaining part of the project at risk of not being completed as planned. But this can be avoided if potential risks are identified, analyzed and mitigated. The four main categories of these risks are as follows: technical risks, external risks, organizational risks, and project management risks. Technical risks These risks include design risks of any new ancillary structures along the corridor, construction risks and environmental risks. Design risks cannot be ignored because Waterview Connection project is very complex and therefore probability of making errors, no matter how small they may be, is relatively high (Nadeem et al., 2010). Even though the main design of this project has already been produced, proposal for changes or introduction of ancillary structures or facilities as the project progresses cannot be ignored. If these changes are not properly planned, they may result into substantial delay of the project. Construction risks are the risks that arise during the actual construction process (Innovation of Civil Engineers, 2016). Environmental risks are the risks caused by environmental factors that affect the project. Considering the high innovativeness of this project, its overall technical risks are very high and therefore of great importance for analysis. Identifying and understanding technical risks will ensure that preliminary planning is done comprehensively and project scope is properly determined (Nerija and Audrius, 2012). External risks These risks include contractual relations risks, unavoidable events (force majeure) risks, environmental risks and social risks. Contractual relations risks are the risks that result from stakeholders failure to honor their commitments fully or by introducing new changes as the project continues. Force majeure risks are those caused by factors that cannot be avoided by the stakeholders and therefore nothing can be done to stop them, such as natural disasters. Environmental factors are causes that are related to environmental issues. Social risks are those caused by issues arising from the local communities. Another important group of external risks comprises of market conditions, variations in exchange rate, politics, and climate change (Yohe, 2010). Even though most of the external risks are caused by outside factors, analyzing and understanding these risks helps stakeholders to plan on how to mitigate them. It is important because it will help stakeholders prepare in advance on how to approach relevant authorities or individuals if any of the external risks occur. Organizational risks Organizational risks are those that arise from the different levels of the projects organizational structure. It is important to explore these risks because they will enable the project team to ensure that the remaining part of the project is well planned and its scope is well defined, staffs are well experienced, an effective recruitment method is put in place to get new staffs or those to replace others who have left and project schedule is adhered to (Peter, 2010). Project management risks Project management risks are the risks resulting from issues related to how the project is being managed. These risks arises especially if management competency is low (Wang, Zou and Zhang, 2006), or if there are endless conflicts among participants (Chris and Tung, 2008). These risks are important because they help the project management team to ensure that the project deliverables, objectives, estimates are accurately determined and planned. This will aid in reducing or avoiding things that could hinder the projects successful completion. Risk Analysis and Evaluation Technical risks These risks have great implication on the projects success. It is important to note that there are some sections of the project that are yet to be done and so these technical risks cannot be ignored. In general, technical risks can be caused by the following factors: changes to original design without performing adequate and complete analysis on proposed designs; wrong estimates of contract times; improper construction methods; unavailability of needed utilities; site and worker safety; environmental risks; unfitting materials and equipment; disruptions and delayed deliveries; inadequate specialized workforce; and onsite offsite wetlands; among others. Considering that this project is complex, the probability and level of importance of technical risks are high and therefore their priority is also high. The team has to explore all technical risks and identify appropriate avoidance or mitigation strategies. This is the only way that the project can proceed and be completed successfully. External risks The risks are due to outside factors that may not have connection with the project (Bright Hub Project Management, 2012). They can be caused by changes in funding for the financial year by the federal and state governments; introduction of new stakeholders as the project progresses; changing priorities in existing project plan; stakeholders calling for late changes and extra needs; changes in project quality, objectives, scope, time and costs; economic instability; fluctuations in exchange rate; market conditions; political interference; changes in regulations of environmental and public safety. Even though the project team has no capability to prevent these risks, understanding these risks will help the team to be prepared in advance just in case the risks occur (Zou et al., 2007). Considering that this is a national project with both national and international impacts, the probability and level of importance of external risks are also high and thus their priority is high. Therefore the risks are important in helping the team identify appropriate strategies they can apply to accept, transfer or mitigate the external risks. Organizational risks These risks can be caused by: improper planning for the remaining part of the project; assigning tasks to inexperienced staff; unexpected assignment for the project manager; losing crucial employees at decisive stages of the project; changing priorities in existing project plan; and changes in the project quality, objectives, scope, time and cost. It is worth noting that this is a very complex project that requires the highest level of competence, keenness and accuracy. Working outside project scope or assigning tasks to inexperienced workforce will have severe impacts on the project (Galorath Dan, 2008). So the probability of organizational risks in this project is high and so they have to be given a top priority. Project management risks Some of the causes of these risks include: changes that may occur to the definition of project objectives, needs, deliverables and costs; undertaking too many activities at ago; inability to control workforce priorities; inexperienced or inadequate workforce (Ibrahim Mahamid, 2013); delays by the contractors or consultants; poor communication or uncoordinated project team; and inadequate resources. Well-Connected Alliance should understand the complex features and challenges of this project, work as a team to overcome them and ensure that the project achieves its monetary value. Therefore this project has a high probability and level of importance of project management risks and so the priority of these risks is also high. It is upon the project management team to establish suitable ways of preventing or managing these risks. Risk Treatment All the four categories of risks (technical risks, external risks, organizational risks and project management risks) have significant impacts on the project. Their probability and level of importance are high and so are their priority values. Therefore for the project to be completed successfully, these risks have to be treated. Risk treatment approaches that can be used include: risk avoidance strategies, risk acceptance strategies, risk transference strategies, and risk mitigation strategies (Nerija Banaitiene and Audrius Banaitis, 2012). Some of the best ways to treat the four risks are as follows: Technical risks These risks can be treated by having qualified staffs at all stages of the project; using appropriate selection methods for high quality construction materials, equipment and methods; making prudent assumptions on any issue related to the project; ensuring that suppliers commit themselves to timely deliveries; upholding the highest standards of site and worker safety through regular training and provision of safety equipment; and allocating adequate time for each activity by making an allowance for unforeseen environmental conditions. External risks Some of the strategies of treating these risks include: pushing for political goodwill in the country by augmenting awareness of the project benefits; collaborating with the relevant government authorities to ensure that the project budget is provided for in each financial year; developing a mechanism of integrating new stakeholders in the project; avoiding or reducing call for supplementary needs or new changes in the project; sticking to the project context and priorities from start to finish; and hiring economic specialists for recommendations on how to deal with fluctuating market conditions. These treatment approaches are appropriate because they will ensure that all risk factors for external risks have been accepted, transferred or mitigated. One of the most challenging external risk to control is climate change (Yohe, 2010). Poor weather conditions become poor conditions because delays because most of the construction works take place outdoors. One of the ways of treating this risk is to have a flexible schedule for the project. This will ensure that when natural, unforeseen and unavoidable conditions occur, such as an earthquake, no party will be subjected to any loss or all parties will share losses using a predetermined method. Thus the schedule should allow for extension of the project in case of such occurrences. Organizational risks It is known that the owner of the Waterview Connection project is NZ Transport Authority. This being a public agency, its organizational structure has a significant impact on the projects success. Some of the ways of treating organizational risks include: defining the process of decision making so as to avoid disputes and conflicts; having an effective recruiting methodology that identifies qualified and experienced staff; and having and sticking to consistent project priorities and context. Project management risks The project management team has a critical role to play in the remaining part of the project. The following are some of the ways the team can treat project management risks: reviewing and clearly understanding defined project context; having adequate and experienced workforce; being in control of workforce priorities; ensuring accurate scheduling and estimations; ensuring that the communication system in place is effective and facilitates easy and transparent information sharing among all stakeholders; holding consultants and contractors responsible and accountable for their actions; planning to ensure that all needed resources are available on time; ensuring that there is adequate reporting throughout the project period; clearly defining the roles and responsibilities of all parties and individuals involved in the project; ensuring that documentation is done properly and consistently; ensuring that there are appropriate procedures put in place to control quality of work done; and en suring that there is adequate staff to manage the project. The project team has to fully support the project; prioritize the project objectives and commit all their efforts to achieving them; reviewing the projects expectations and ensuring that they are accurate; ensuring that any conflict among the project team members is resolved quickly; putting in place mechanisms to retain all top executives of the project team; ensuring that all project inputs are of top quality; making sure that all decisions made are definite, complete and of high quality; and making sure that the projects methodology is followed to the latter (Mar, 2016). There is also a potential risk associated with this project after its completion. This risk is high operational and maintenance costs of the infrastructure being constructed. It has been estimated that the annual operational and maintenance costs of the project will be $16 million (Matt L., 2016). This is relatively high and may reduce the projects investment returns. It is therefore important for the relevant stakeholders to start looking for ways on how to reduce this high cost. Conclusion The remaining part of Waterview Connection still has multiple risks that can hinder its successful completion. These risks include technical risks, project management risks, organizational risks and external risks. The good part is that majority of these risks can be avoided or mitigated if they are properly identified and analyzed (Protiviti, (n.d)). This is mainly the responsibility of stakeholders involved in the project. To facilitate successful completion of the remaining part of the project, Well-Connected Alliance should get a team of highly experienced advisors, who have worked on similar projects before, and an experienced, professional independent reviewer, consultant or risk manager to assist them identify potential risks associated with the remaining part of the project. It is important to have an external perspective so as to ensure that the risk assessments done and treatments suggested are comprehensive, complete and accurate. References Beca. (2014). Waterview Connection. Retrieved September 23, 2016 from https://www.beca.co.nz/projects/transport/road_transport/waterview_connection.aspx Bright Hub Project Management. (2012). Internal vs. external risks in project management. Retrieved September 23, 2016 from https://www.brighthubpm.com/risk-management/94946-internal-vs-external-risks-in-project-management/ Chris Hendrickson and Tug Au. (2008). Organization for Project Management. Retrieved from https://pmbook.ce.cmu.edu/02_Organizing_For_Project_Management.html Fletcher Construction Company Limited. (2016). Waterview Connection. Retrieved September 23, 2016 from https://www.fletcherconstruction.co.nz/projects.php?action=searchid=467 Galorath Dan. (2008). Risk On IT Infrastructure Projects, Retrieved September 23, 2016 from https://galorath.com/wp/risk-on-it-infrastructure-projects/ Ibrahim Mahamid. (2013). Common risks affecting time overrun in road construction projects in Palestine: Contractors perspective. Australian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, 13 (2) 45-53. Innovation of Civil Engineers. (September 8, 2016). Risk in building design and construction. Retrieved September 23, 2016 from https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Risk_in_building_design_and_construction Learnz. (n.d.). More Than Just A Road. Retrieved September 23, 2016 from https://www.learnz.org.nz/waterviewconnection143/more-than-just-a-road Mar Anna. (2016). 130 Project Risks (List). Retrieved September 23, 2016 from https://management.simplicable.com/management/new/130-project-risks Matt L. (September 1, 2016). Waterview Mitigation Needed. Retrieved September 23, 2016 from https://transportblog.co.nz/tag/waterview-connection/ Nadeem et al. (2010). Risk Management in Construction Industry. IEEE Nerija Banaitiene and Audrius Banaitis. (2012). Risk Management in Construction Projects. Nicole Lawton. (June 9, 2016). Aucklands Waterview Connection on schedule to open in early 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2016 from https://www.stuff.co.nz/auckland/80912488/Aucklands-Waterview-Connection-on-schedule-to-open-in-early-2017 NZ Transport Agency. (2016). Waterview Connection. Retrieved September 23, 2016 from https://www.nzta.govt.nz/projects/the-western-ring-route/waterview-connection/ Peter G. Furst. (2010). Construction Project Risk Management. Retrieved from https://www.irmi.com/articles/expert-commentary/construction-project-risk-management Protiviti. (n.d). Identifying and Managing Risks on Construction Projects. U.S.: Protiviti. Waka Kotahi. (2011). Waterview Connection going underground. Auckland: NZ Transport Agency. Wang, Zou and Zhang, 2006 Yohe, G. (2010). Risk Assessment and Risk Management for Infrastructure Planning and Investment, National Academy of Engineering, Vol. 40, No. 3. Zou et al. (2007). Understanding the key risks in construction projects in China. International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 25, Issue 6, pp. 601-614.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Word count 2017 Ã¢â¬Å"What is hypnosis? Ã¢â¬ Describe the physical and psychological aspects of hypnosis and discuss the role of relaxation in hypnotherapy. Hypnosis is a very natural state of consciousness in which we are able to completely relax our mind and body, it is not in any way a magic spell that has been put on a person, nor does it hold any mystical powers or is it supernatural in anyway. Hypnosis causes the person hypnotised to display and experience both physical and psychological changes. Relaxation is the key to hypnosis it is also a direct result of being hypnotised. When we are hypnotised we experience many different physical and psychological phenomena many of which arenÃ¢â¬â¢t anything out of the ordinary and can be experienced in everyday life, some others are slightly more unusual and are usually only experienced when hypnotised. Hypnosis has come a long way from the days of Franz Anton Mesmer in the late 18th century, Mesmer believed in a magnetic fluid which passed through the body when the person to be Ã¢â¬ËmesmerisedÃ¢â¬â¢ would hold metal rods which had been submerged in a large tub of magnetised water, the person would experience convulsions and fall to the floor to be cured of the symptoms affecting them. We will write a custom essay sample on What Is Hypnosis? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The modern day the hypnotist does not bear any resemblance to the mystical character we have seen in the past, it is unlikely you will ever find hypnotist like Mesmer in this day and age or even Svengali, who was a fictional character depicted by George Du Maurier in the 1894 novel Trilby. Svengali with his pointed beard and dark piercing eyes used his evil influence for personal gain. People like Mesmer and the character Svengali have become the ideal that many people relate to hypnotism. Many people throughout the years have followed the path created by Mesmer, developing techniques along the way. It was James Braid a Scottish physician who coined the term Ã¢â¬ËhypnosisÃ¢â¬â¢ which came from the name for the Greek god of sleep Hypnos. Braid later regretted this as hypnosis is not actually sleep it is a different state of consciousness to sleep, he then tried to use the word monoideism in its place but this never caught on. Hypnosis is now known to be a deep state of relaxation or trance like state, using the repetition and tone in the hypnotists voice we can allow ourselves to relax deeply into this trance like state, opening our powerful subconscious mind and letting it take over the conscious. When in this deeply relaxed state the brain actually changes the frequency of brainwaves as we become more relaxed both physically and mentally, as we gently ease into this hypnotic trance we can easily accept suggestion whilst all the time being completely in control of our own mind and body. We can measure the frequency of these brainwaves using electroencephalography or EEG as it is more widely known, using EEG and understanding the way brainwaves work we can get a better understanding of how we come to enter a hypnotic trance, There are four main types of brain wave. Beta are the fastest of all the brain waves at 15 to 40 cycles per second, usually Beta waves occur while we are focussed and thinking logically for example when engaging in conversation, holding a debate and actively taking in information on a daily basis, these waves are produced in abundance. Alpha waves are the second type they are slower than Beta at 9 to 14 cycles per second and occur whilst we are relaxed and maybe resting after using the Beta waves during intense conversation, the relaxed state we enter when in Alpha waves can come and go and are not always present in the brain. Alpha waves are not present at times when we are angry experiencing fear or are in a deep sleep. They are present during the lighter stages of hypnosis. Theta waves have a pace of 4 to 8 cycles per second and are onsiderably slower present at times of sleep usually whilst dreaming, in a deeply relaxed state such as hypnosis and when performing tasks we do without consciously thinking about them such as driving a familiar journey, when Theta waves are activated we can experience high levels of emotion they are associated with the subconscious mind, sometimes the subconscious mind holds painful memories that donÃ¢â¬â¢t occur all the time so these theta waves can cause these memories to come t o the conscious mind, which is why this can be so important during hypnotherapy. Delta waves are the slowest at 1 to 4 cycles per second occurring during deep sleep there are no other brain waves present during Delta, a very deep dreamless sleep takes you right down to the lowest levels so does deep hypnosis but never they never go below 1 as this would be brain dead. During hypnosis we move gradually through the different levels of consciousness never jumping through the levels of brain wave activity but moving smoothly through them, whilst we are wide awake we would be in Beta brain wave state, alert and wide awake, moving gradually to Alpha as we start to relax into the slower state of consciousness, then moving through to Theta once completely relaxed and going into a deep hypnosis, finally Delta waves may kick in if we are so deeply hypnotised, then as we are gradually re-orientated we come back up through the stages in reverse order one by one until we reach Beta and are alert and wide awake once more. Of course we do go into a trance like state during every day life we donÃ¢â¬â¢t actually have to be hypnotised, but this trance can be compared to hypnosis. One good example of this is whilst driving a familiar journey that we may take every day, the subconscious mind takes over the conscious probably dipping into those Alpha waves, sometimes we will reach the destination with absolutely no idea how we arrived but somehow have arrived there safely. This actually happens because everything you have learned during life is stored up in the subconscious mind, how to drive has been stored up so the conscious mind doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to work hard so it drifts off whist the subconscious mind keeps you doing what you have already learned in the past, until there is a change to the regular route and you have to stop at a red light this is when the conscious mind comes back and you wonder how you got to that place so fast. The aspects of hypnosis I have already explained all happen psychologically within the brain, when we look at stage hypnosis we see popular misconceptions we have been led to believe, everything is visual we see actual evidence of hypnosis, or we are made to believe that we are seeing real hypnosis this is all the showmanship of the hypnotist, of course the people who are hypnotised could well be but usually this is done back stage to save time and sometimes the people have been pre chosen to perform. As the hypnotist uses his Ã¢â¬ËpowersÃ¢â¬â¢ taps the person or tells them Ã¢â¬Å"sleepÃ¢â¬ for example they suddenly fall into a deep sleep, some of this could be due to conformity, the people do what they believe is expected of them. Catalepsy is a phenomena of hypnosis that we may see evidence of on stage in the form of the human plank trick when the hypnotised person remains rigid as another person stands on them as they are suspended by using two chairs at either end of the body. It can also be used as a test to check if a client is hypnotised during a hypnotherapy session, the hypnotist will suggest to them they are unable to move a part of the body and indeed they cannot. Other physical aspects of hypnosis occur naturally in everyday life sometimes when we rest or sleep. Eyelids may flutter as they start to relax into hypnosis the client may or may not notice this but like all the other aspects this is completely normal. They may also have rapid eye movements similar to the ones we have in REM sleep. Physical relaxation is another indication the client is hypnotised, their muscles will relax the jaw may relax and drop open slightly, they may even slobber a little bit, the pulse rate changes as the person starts to relax deeper and also as the breathing becomes slower and more rhythmic. Usually when going through a relaxation technique the hypnotist will ask the person to concentrate on their breathing resulting in it becoming slow and deep. Just as we do when we are falling asleep we may feel our body twitch subtly as we enter hypnosis and all the muscles in the body start to relax, sometimes the eyes water but it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean the client is crying we can check this later on though by asking questions about the clients experience. Subjects of hypnosis also experience changes to the senses, hyperaesthesia occurs when the senses become super-acute even tiny changes in temperature have been noticed by people who have been hypnotised, we could experience a change in our senses if we were to be blindfolded our other senses would change to allow for the lack of vision but when using hypnosis the change would be rapid. As well as hyperaesthesia it is possible to experience hypnotic anaesthesia or analgesia which is pain relief on different levels. Analgesia is the term used to describe localised pain relief due to loss of sensation in that specific area, to anaesthetise a person the hypnotherapist would use suggestion under hypnosis to lose the sensation in that particular area, in stage hypnotism we would see the like of this for the person to be pricked on the finger and not feel the pain or in a medical situation the person could actually be operated on in a specific part of the body that has been anaesthetised by hypnosis. It is possible to hallucinate during hypnosis, although not without suggestion, for example the hypnotist can tell the hypnotised person there is something there that actually doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist and they will see it, also they can use this the other way around by suggesting to the person that an object actually isnÃ¢â¬â¢t in the room when it is. An important psychological change that may occur under hypnosis is hypersuggestability, for example the person to be hypnotised not to feel pain in their arm during an operation would not be able to achieve such a thing if they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t under hypnosis and able to accept the suggestion that they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel the pain unless they were actually hypnotised. There are other phenomena like this such as time distortion, a client who has had an hour long hypnotherapy session could re-orientate feeling like only 10 minutes has passed. To be able to achieve these things and to be treated using hypnotherapy there must be an element of trust between the hypnotherapist and the client, as it is important the client is able to relax in the environment with their hypnotherapist. Relaxation during hypnotherapy is probably the most important aspect as hypnosis is a deep state of relaxation and without relaxation hypnotherapy would not be possible. We become relaxed by listening to the hypnotherapists voice repeating the hypnotic induction all the time the mind and body needs to be able to relax to make the session as successful as possible. A hypnotist does not hold special powers to send you into a trance you have to be relaxed to allow yourself to go into the deep state of hypnosis for hypnotherapy to begin. Hypnosis is an extremely useful tool, even if ultimately it is only used as relaxation as learning to relax can be hugely beneficial to everybody. The history of hypnosis proves to be an interesting insight into how hypnosis and hypnotherapy has evolved over the years, how relaxation has become a much more important aspect of hypnotherapy and how hypnosis has been used throughout the years by many different people. The cycles of the brainwaves show us that every stage of hypnosis it an important one becoming deeply relaxed enough to reach the powerful subconscious mind and to experience all of the physical and psychological aspects, in order to let the power of suggestion be delivered, hopefully to change life for the better.
Monday, November 25, 2019
ANWR essays Open land stretching for miles in all directions, with on of the worlds greatest natural resource sitting beneath the surface. What is it you ask? It is oil. In Alaska, there are tons of barrels of oil coming out of existing oil production plants, but they will not be giving out as much oil as they once did. The Prudhoe Bay oil field will soon be drying up and Alaska will need a new place to drill for oil. How will Alaska fulfill this task of gaining more oil. Well there is this land in the northeast corner of Alaska called ANWR, which stands for Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. ANWR is where the oil companies want to drill for oil. There are only a few problems. The Alaska government wants ANWR open but the federal government doesnt want to open ANWR because it will disturb the natural habitat which really annoys the environmentalist. ANWR should be opened for drilling because it will create many new jobs. The environmentalists dont want the oil companies to disturb the natural habitat, but Prudhoe Bay has been operating for 17 years without any detectable environmental damages, and everyone would be able to gain economic wealth. One reason Alaska should open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is because it will create many new jobs. Many people who are high in political authority say Alaska should open ANWR for jobs. Senator Murkowski and Ted Stevens want ANWR open for the jobs it would create. And George Bush wanted Alaska to drill because it would help his energy strategy, which would create new jobs. The oil companies say that there is probably oil located beneath the ground in the ANWR, and if there were oil down there that Alaska could drill, the oil companies would have to build new plants to bring up the oil, so they would need more workers which would mean new jobs for Alaskans. Tony Knowles said that maintaining the land Alaskans love as I am about maintaining jobs so we can live here.1...
Friday, November 22, 2019
Police future and using of new Technologies - Essay Example Local law enforcement agencies are part of the overall DHS team, even while taking care of local issues, as they are also at street level and most likely to gather information from neighborhood contacts (Peak 2012). Many of the tools devised by the military are now being used by the law enforcement communities to help overcome issues of restricted manpower and availability on the streets. Tools used by the FBI and the NSA, particularly within the surveillance realm, are being used, such as advanced electronic apparatus that will pick up any phone and texting messages being sent in any given area that is being monitored by the Stingray (Sabalow 2013). This mobile device picks up the transmissions from a close-by tower and relays it back to the mobile deviceÃ¢â¬â¢s antenna and is then downloaded to a laptop. By all formal accounts, actual phone conversations and text messages are not picked up in real time. The point is to determine those suspected phone numbers, which link people being watched, with others who may yet be unknown to the police, until that linkage occurs. Location of the phone call or message is recorded by location and time, perhaps placing certain suspicious people close to so me event that has occurred, or is likely to occur, such as a bombing. The next step for law enforcement is to get a warrant that can be applied to the towerÃ¢â¬â¢s carrier and thus, be able to get more information from the carrier on the suspected people involved. However, there is always room for abuse in determining just when the original information was gathered, thus necessitating that warrant, or if one was even obtained. Not only are suspected people under surveillance, so are those people who just happen to be in that area where the tower is located (Sabalow 2013). It would be ideal if law enforcement could come up with fine-tuned technology that could just follow the suspicious phone numbers and text messages by setting up a technological code on the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Clifford and James - Essay Example Clifford, therefore, could justify that the truth that the car is blue because believes in the weight of authority. He understands that the car cannot be red and blue at the same time. According to the weight of authority, something cannot possess the qualities of both truth and false concurrently because a lot of knowledge exists to counter such as an argument. Consequently, a car can only be blue and nothing else. It is supported by the law of excluded middle that affirms that an object can only possess two qualities namely truth or false. Clifford, thus, acknowledges that if the car is not blue, then it is not a car. However, Clifford could also say God does not exist. According to constructivist theorists, truth is a construction of varying social processes that encompass overt questioning on modes of thought. As a result, it is upon Clifford to determine his knowledge of God through different perceptions that is always influenced by through representations of physical and biological reality. Determination of objective truth on the veracity of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence is, hence, deflected by the social construction of the individual compounded by the factors false ideology, power or knowledge. James equally has the right to claim God exists and adduce enough evidence of proving his claim. This is because validity of a claim rests on evidentialism, overbelief, and faith. In formulating his argument, James will assert that God exists because his conditioning is guided by social processes of a strong faith. It differs from the conflict of CliffordÃ¢â¬â¢s view that God does not exist on the basis that their realities of knowledge differ (James 7). For example, while JamesÃ¢â¬â¢s reality is pegged on the distinct identity of a Supreme Being, his counterpart bears contradictions on the concept of God in the aspect of context. I agree with James in regards to statement (A) that God exists and not Clifford because the concept of belief is what
Monday, November 18, 2019
Do an analysis of the strategic capability of Toyota Manufacturing - Essay Example Hence the explanation of the manufacturing process will also include this factor with reference to cost efficiency. In drawbacks or absence (if any) of crucial elements will also be looked into. There is an irony that exists in the American automobile sector. While many companies are finding difficult to compete internationally due to high costs of production, ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s manufacturing facility in the country continues to grow profitably. The TPS has been copied by many companies without real success. It is only for Toyota that the system works irrespective of the market in which operates in manufacturing bases. One single factor for the failure of others to match the Company is that they apply it only to some of the department, especially production and manufacturing. Toyota on the other hand Ã¢â¬Å"carefully describes its fabled system as an operating philosophy for guiding the management of an entire enterprise.Ã¢â¬ (Teresko, 2006). Unless the TPS becomes a philosophy and is applied throughout the organization, its success will be very limited. The key features that include resources of the Toyota Production System are given below. It should be noted that key manu facturing terms like just-in-time production, total quality management, lean and agile systems, re-engineering are all incorporated in this process. Toyota is also credited as the creator of the famous just-in-time system. 3. Focusing on the pull system: The pull system is one where raw materials are supplied only when it is needed by any area of production. They then pull the product from inventory or the previous production stage. When implemented throughout the process, there will be no overproduction of backlog in the plant. 4. If any problems are seen, the manufacturing within that sub-process is stopped until they are fixed. It is better to get the quality factor right at the production stage itself rather than recall an automobile after it has been sold. 6. The company depends on reliable and
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Group Definition Of Cross Cultural Awareness Management Essay The purpose of this report is to add to the group slide presentation on cross cultural awareness and the training program that was formulated to tackle the issue. Within this report there will be a summary of each the points that the group focused on. The task that the group were faced with was in the form of a training program that was geared towards increasing cross cultural awareness of a group of 10 British sales managers who work for IBM. Group Definition of Cross Cultural Awareness As more companies expand globally involving expatriates, the need for culture awareness has increased. The lack of cultural awareness is the main cause of misunderstanding and conflicts because of the cultural differences and where the behaviour perception of one culture may be different for another. (Cushner Brislin, 1996). The authors gave different names to cross-cultural awareness such as cross-cultural competence, cross-cultural training, intercultural competence and intercultural sensitivity. Based on several academic literatures, cross-cultural awareness means that a good understanding of its own culture will help the individual to understand more the others cultures and then to be more successful in cross cultural behaviour. In other words, the individual should be conscious enough of their own culture in developing the managers intercultural competence. That means increasing the ability to behave in intercultural way and improving communication across cultures as the intercultural competence shows consideration for others needs and fulfilment of ones own satisfactions (Gupta Govindarajan, 2002). In addition, cross-cultural awareness enables the individual to create a self-awareness through which he can identify his own knowledge and cultural values. Importance of Cross-Cultural Awareness Cross-cultural awareness is considered an important tool that reduces the consequences of cross-cultural conflict. It helps to learn how to behave in appropriate way across different cultures and create a feeling for these cultural differences. This results in enhancing cross-cultural communication skills like listening, speaking and observing which play a vital role to build trust between people of different cultures. The improvement of partnership skills as well, that requires a greater international collaboration. In addition, it decreases the cross-cultural misunderstanding and creates a winning working environment in the workplace. It is a business benefit and cost-effective solution for many companies since it maximizes their potential globally and develops the intercultural sensitivity of expatriates by providing better results to the organisation. It has a significant importance because the expatriates would understand and accept and build a strong relationship with people fr om various cultural backgrounds. Appropriateness of Training Bush and Thomas (2000) explain that it is of a main important for developing successful buyer-seller relationship. A sales manager will have to go through special training which we can call cultural diversity training. Before going through this training Bush and Thomas (2000) argue that it is a requirement for sales people to be exposed to a culturally diverse encounter. This phase will lead sales managers to realise the impact cultural diversity will have on business relationship and will enable them to be really aware of its importance, instead of neglecting it. Requirements can be achieved thanks to management training games such as the BAFA BAFA game. This game begins with the creation of two teams. The sales management team will have to be split into two teams that have different languages and cultures and will have to handle with the rules of the game, and to understand each culture. This game has a long history of success and it was proved to be a good tool to make people from different background work more effectively together. Once the sales managers are aware of the benefit cross cultural training could bring to them, they can move on the proper training. Montagno,R.(1996) say this will enable sales mangers toÃ acquire the three main qualities needed to do business abroad such as initiate conversation and establish and maintain a meaningful relationship. Type, content and length of training Seven types of training were identified by researchers Litrell and Salas (2005). These seven approaches are identified in the appendix. Each of the seven have their meanings, for example with regards to the groups specific training program, language training means that individuals do not have to become fluent but a general understanding of common courtesies in the host language is provided. (Befus 1988; Bennett 1986) It was decided that six months would be a worthy timescale for the training to take place in order to cover the ten methods and contents chosen by the group. These ten, were sourced from the handbook of intercultural training the ten can be viewed in table 1. These link to the groups definition of cross cultural awareness because the group had identified the key words, such as sensitivity, which is linked to the content of culture sensitizer. From the ten, a table (table 1) was created, which described factors such as what the outcome of the training will be, whether the training will give them knowledge into about or across cultures, what the learning styles would be as different people have different learning styles, for example British people have a different style to American people. The ten were chosen because we felt these were most likely to fit the definition of cross cultural awareness that we produced, for example self-awareness will give employees an understanding about their own culture as well as other peoples cultures. Table 1: Training Methods Cultural Effects Yang, et al (2009) suggest that the effect of trainees cultural background could be examines by Hofstede cultural dimensions. According to Hofstede (1994), nation cultural is defined as the collective programming of the mind in a nation or region. Hofstede (2009) suggested that cultural has several dimensions which include Individualism and collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, time orientation, power distance and masculinity and femininity. The review on cultural effect to the British participants learning performance will base on Hofstedes framework. Table 2 is a summary of the participants cultural effect: Table 2 Cultural Effects in Cross Cultural Training (Sources: Geert Hofstede, 2010) Dimensions Score Effects Approaches Individualism/Collectivism 89 The UK individualism cultural have higher intrinsic motivation than participants from collectivism cultural. The UKs participants valence and training motivation are higher when training is perceived to increase the competencies of individuals. The UKs participants cultural adopt a concrete, intuitive, and inductive learning style. Uncertainty Avoidance 35 The UK participants cultural training effectiveness is associated with a lower level of valence. Short/Long-term Oriented 51 The UKs culture has an average score on time oriented dimension. As a result, the course shall take care on both long-terms and short terms benefits. Power Distance 35 The UK participants cultural is higher when the training is implemented by using a decision-making process. Muscularity/ femininity 66 The participants culture will have higher training motivation and valence when training is perceived to increase the competencies of individuals. The UK has high individualism culture, Yang et al. (2009) showed that participants from individualism cultures have higher intrinsic motivation than participants from collectivism cultures and their valence and training motivation are higher when training is perceived to increase the competencies of individuals. Therefore, the training program should focus on increasing individual performance rather than organizations competencies. Yang, et al. (2009) reported individual cultures adopt a concrete, intuitive, and inductive learning style. As a result, the course shall include elements of solid example to gain best result from participants. They also suggested lower uncertainty avoidance cultural training effectiveness is associated with a lower level of valence. Consequently, the training shall include more individual works rather than group works. They found that the participants from short term oriented will require immediate benefit from the training program. However, the participants from long term oriented will require future benefit from the training program. The UKs culture has an average score on time oriented dimension. Therefore, the course shall take care on both long-terms and short terms benefits. Yang et al. (2009) found that the participants from short term oriented will require immediate benefit from the training program. However, the participants from long term oriented will require future benefit from the training program. The UKs culture has an average score on time oriented dimension. Therefore, the course shall take care on both long-terms and short terms benefits. They also suggested that masculinity cultural will have higher training motivation and valence when training is perceived to increase the competencies of individuals. Therefore, the training program should focus on increasing individual performance rather than organizations competencies. Evaluation The evaluation is an important stage to be considered in the implementation of cross-culture training. It aims to evaluate the effectiveness of cross-culture training by linking logically the content of measures to the training content (Kraiger et al, 1993), assess the improvement of participants awareness about cultural differences and whether the skills and knowledge learned from the training has been implemented in the workplace (Littrell, Salas, 2005) in order to provide recommendations for future cross-culture training. In order to evaluate IBMs cross-culture training, it is important for the evaluator to understand the meaning of culture awareness and sensitivity and set up success criteria for CCT program (Guzman, 2003). Only then they can evaluate participants knowledge and cross-culture training outcomes. The evaluation requires mixed methods including both qualitative and quantitative in order to increase the reliability of the findings. Thus, we will use various evaluation methods at this stage namely conducting interviews with participants in order to determine the change of their cognitive, affective and cognitive behaviour during the training, their self-maintenance and their adjustment to multicultural environment that have been also mentioned by Cross, et al, (1992) A set of congruent behaviours, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals and enables that system, agency, or those professionals to work effectively in cross cultural situations. Th is method will be followed by pre-training and post-training survey in order to rate their competency and ability to deal with different cultures in the workplace. The return on investment (ROS) should also be used in order to measure the outcomes of this CCT program. This will help to decide whether CCT program should be modified or not and improve it in the future. Conclusion In conclusion, the pace of globalisation has raised a great attention of managers on the cross-cultural issues due to the conflicts and misunderstanding encountered in the workplace. These issues led to harsh consequences taking the form of frustrated shareholders and business opportunity losses. Therefore, there is a growing need to have an extensive interpersonal skills and knowledge than in past (Kealey and Protheroe, 1996). In other words, companies with an international growth strategy, such as our company IBM, are getting to implement a cross-cultural training for their global managers dealing with individuals from various cultures and this was an effective strategy to achieve their multicultural objectives and organisational performances. The six-month cross-cultural training implemented in IBM sales department will be a mean for our managers to increase their cultural awareness both at the professional and individual level including their communication and negotiation skills. Word Count: 1500 (exclude the tables and references) Appendix: Presentation Slides